PANS is the acronym for Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome, a more recently defined disorder which encompasses the more familiar medical condition, PANDAS or Pediatric AutoimmuneNeuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections. PANDAS is now considered a subset of the broader classification, PANS.

History of PANS

In 2010, a consortium of physicians, researchers and other experts in the field published a separate set of diagnostic criteria for PANS, distinguishing the condition from PANDAS. The intention was to focus on the “unique features of [a child’s] clinical presentation, rather than on the role that strep infections might play.” Expanding the classification is an important development, since there are a growing number of reported cases of patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for PANDAS, but whose laboratory tests indicate they are negative for a recent group A streptococcal infection.